Kfg;G
 gj;jphpif ntspaPLfSk; ciufSk;
 tq;fpiag;gw;wp
 ehzaf; nfhs;if
 epjpapay; Kiwik cWjpg;ghL
 ehza Kfhikj;Jtk;
 KftH njhopw;ghLfs;
 Gs;sp tpguq;fs;
 rl;lq;fSk; Vw;ghLfSk;
 ntspaPLfs;
 fy;tp
 gzpfSk; njhopy; tha;g;GfSk;
 
epjpapay; Kiwik cWjpg;ghL
epjpapay; Kiwikiag; gw;wp

epjpapay; Kiwik cWjpg;ghL
epjpapay; Kiwik cWjpg;ghL vd;gJ> ghJfhg;ghdJk;> cWjpahdJkhd epjpapay; Kiwik MFk;. ,J ntspehl;L kw;Wk; cs;ehl;L mjpHr;rpfis vjpHnfhs;sf; $bajhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. xU cWjpahd epjpapay; KiwikahdJ itg;ghsHfSf;Fk;> KjyPl;lhsHfSf;Fk; xU rhjfkhd R+oiy cUthf;FfpwJ. ,J epjpapay; epWtdq;fs; kw;Wk; re;ijfs; gad;jUk; tifapYk; jpwdhfTk; njhopw;gl Cf;fkspf;fpd;wJ. vdNt> ,J KjyPl;bidAk;> nghUshjhu tsHr;rpapidAk; Jhz;Lfpd;wJ. epjpapay; Kiwik cWjpg;ghl;Lf;F gaDs;s xOq;fikg;G fl;likg;G kw;Wk; ghJfhg;ghdJk; Kd;Ndw;wfukhdJkhd nfhLg;gdT kw;Wk; jPh;g;gdT KiwikapDs; cWjpahd epjpapay; kw;Wk; nghUshjhur; #oiy Njitg;gLj;JfpwJ. epjpapay; Kiwik cWjpg;ghl;bidg; NgZtJ epjpapay; Kiwikf;F Vw;glf;$ba rhj;jpakhd ghjpg;gilaf;$ba jd;ikiaAk;> ,lh; Neh;TfisAk; ,dq;fz;L mtw;iwf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjid ,ayr; nra;fpwJ.

Nrkpg;ghsHfSf;Fk;> KjyPl;lhsHfSf;Fk; ek;gpf;ifj; jd;ikapid cUthf;fp rhjfkhd R+oiy Vw;gLj;jy;

 
ehzaf; nfhs;ifapd; khw;wq;fSf;F cjtpnra;J> mjd; %yk; tpiy cWjpg;ghl;bid miltjw;F cjtp nra;jy;
 
jpwdhd epjpapay; ,ilaPl;L epWtdq;fis Cf;fg;gLj;Jjy;> ,J ,Wjpapy; KjyPL> tsHr;rpiaj; Jhz;Lk;.
 
gaDs;sJk; tpidj;jpwd; kpf;fJkhd re;ijfspd; nghUshjhu nray;ghl;il Cf;fg;gLj;jp> tsq;fspd; gfpHtpid Nkk;gLj;Jjy;
 

  epjpapay; Kiwik cWjpg;ghl;L - rpw;NwL njhlH ,y. 2 >>
  epjpapay; Kiwik kPsha;T 2012 |2011 |2010 |2009 |2008 |


epjpapay; Kiwikapd; mikg;G

,yq;ifapd; epjpapay; Kiwik gpujhd epjpapay; epWtdq;fis mlf;fpAs;sJ. mitahtd: ,yq;if kj;jpa tq;fp> chpkk;; ngw;w th;j;jf tq;fpfs;> chpkk; ngw;w rpwg;gpay;G tha;e;j tq;fpfs;> chpkk; ngw;w epjpf; fk;gdpfs;> rpwg;G Fj;jif toq;Fk; fk;gdpfs;> Kjd;epiy tzpfHfs;> Xa;T+jpa kw;Wk; Nrk epjpfs;> fhg;GWjpf; fk;gdpfs;> fpuhkpa tq;fpfs;> gq;Fj; jufHfs;> gpizaq;fs; re;ij ,ilaPl;lhsHfs;> $W ek;gpf;iffs;> kw;Wk; Nrkpg;G> nfhLfld; $l;LwT rq;fq;fs;.gpujhd epjpapay; re;ijfs; gpd;tUtkhW: ntspr; nryhtzpr; re;ij> gzr; re;ij> %yjdr; re;ij kw;Wk; Kiwrhuh epjpapay; re;ij. epjpapay; cl;fl;likg;G vd;gJ epjpapay; Kiwik kw;Wk; nfhLg;gdT >jPHg;gdT njhlHghd rl;lhPjpahd fl;likg;ghFk;. epjpapay; Kiwikapy; gpujhd epWtdq;fspd; nrhj;Jf;fs;> nghWg;Gf;fs; njhlHghd juTfs; fPNo cs;s gl;baypy; jug;gl;Ls;sd

epjpapay;; Kiwikapy; cs;s gpujhd epWtdq;fspd; nkhj;j nrhj;Jf;fSk; itg;Gg; nghWg;Gf;fSk; - 2012 nrj;njk;gH ,Wjpapy; cs;sthW (m)
  nrhj;Jf;fs; itg;Gg; nghWg;Gfs;
epjpapay; epWtdk; &. gpy; % gq;F &. gpy; % gq;F
,yq;if kj;jpa tq;fp 1>356.6 15.4 V.m V.m
kj;jpa tq;fpahy; xOq;FgLj;jg;gLk; epWtdq;fs; 5>608.7 63.7 3>698.8 98.0
  itg;Gf;fis Vw;Fk; epWtdq;fs; 5>344.6 60.7 3>698.8 98.0

chpkk; ngw;w tHj;jf tq;fpfs;

4>207.4 47.8 2>927.2 77.6

chpkk; ngw;w rpwg;gpay;G tha;e;j tq;fpfs;

708.8 8.0 539.2 14.3

chpkk; ngw;w epjp epWtdq;fs;

428.4 4.9 232.4 6.2
  Vida epjpapay; epWtdq;fs; 264.1 3.0 V.m V.m

Kjdpiy tzpfHfs;

128.5 1.5 V.m V.m

rpwg;G ,ay;G tha;e;j Fj;jif toq;Fk; fk;gdpfs;

135.6 1.5 V.m V.m
kj;jpa tq;fpapdhy; xOq;FgLj;jg;glhj epWtdq;fs; 1>842.2 20.9 74.2 2.0
  itg;Gf;fis Vw;Fk; epWtdq;fs; 84.2 1.0 74.2 2.0

fpuhkpa tq;fpfs; (M)

76.9 0.9 67.9 1.8

rpf;fd nfhLfld; $l;LwT rq;fq;fs; (M)

7.3 0.1 6.3 0.2
  xg;ge;j mbg;gilapyhd Nrkpg;G epWtdq;fs; 1>690.2 19.2 V.m V.m

CopaH Nrk epjpak;

1>108.0 12.6 V.m V.m

CopaH ek;gpf;if epjpak;

154.3 1.8 V.m V.m

xg;Gjyspf;fg;gl;l jdpahH Nrk epjpak; (,)

110.3 1.3 V.m V.m

nghJg; gzpfs; Nrk epjpak;

31.3 0.4 V.m V.m

fhg;GWjpf; fk;gdpfs; (<)

286.6 3.3 V.m V.m
 

Vida epjpapay; epWtdq;fs;

67.8 0.8 V.m V.m

gq;Fj; jufH fk;gdpfs;;; (c)

18.2 0.2 V.m V.m

$W ek;gpf;if/ $W ek;gpf;if Kfhikj;Jt fk;gdpfs; (c)

24.4 0.3 V.m V.m

re;ij ,ilaPl;lhsHfs; (c) (C)

22.8 0.3 V.m V.m

nfhLfld; jukply; KftHfs; (c)

0.2 0.0 V.m V.m

Jzpfu %yjdf; fk;gdpfs;

2.1 0.0 V.m V.m
nkhj;j nrhj;Jfs; 8>807.5 100.0 3>773.0 100.0
%yk;: ,yq;if kj;jpa tq;fp
(m) jw;fhypfkhdit
(M) $l;LwT mgptpUj;jp jpizf;fsj;Jld; gjpT nra;ag;gl;lJ
(,) njhopy; jpizf;fsj;Jld; gjpT nra;ag;gl;lJ
(<) ,yq;if fhg;GWjpr; rigapdhy; xOq;FKiwg; gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ
(c) ,yq;if gpizaq;fs; kw;Wk; ghpth;j;jid Mizf;FOtpdhy; xOq;FKiwg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ
(C) re;ij ,ilaPl;;lhsHfs; vd;gJ xg;GWjpahsHfs;> fld; trjpaspg;gtHfs; kw;Wk; KjyPl;L KfhikahsHfis cs;slf;FfpwJ
* re;ij ,ilaPl;lhsuhfg; gjpT nra;ag;gl;l chpkk; ngw;w tHj;jf tq;fpfs;> chpkk; ngw;w epjpf;fk;gdpfs; kw;Wk; rpwg;gpay;G tha;e;j Fj;jif epWtdq;fs; cs;slf;fg;gltpy;iy
V.m.- Vw;GilaJ my;y


,yq;ifapd; tq;fpj; njhopy; JiwahdJ chpkk; ngw;w tHj;jf tq;fpfs;> chpkk; ngw;w rpwg;gpay;G tha;e;j tq;fpffs; vd;gdtw;iw cs;slf;fpAs;sJld; epjpapay; Jiwapy; Kf;fpa gq;fpid tfpf;fpd;wJ. 2012 nrj;njk;gH ,Wjpapy; epjpapay; Kiwikapd; nkhj;j nrhj;Jf;fspy; 56 rjtPjj;jpid ,it nfhz;bUe;jd. tq;fpfs; epjpapay; Kiwikf;Fs; xU gpujhd gq;fpid tfpf;fpd;wikf;F> KO nghUshjhuj;Jf;Fk; jputj;jd;ikia toq;ff; $ba ,aystpid mit nfhz;Ls;sikNa fhuzkhFk;. tq;fpfs;> nfhLg;gdTg; gzpfis toq;Ftjw;F nghWg;ghftpUg;gjd; %yk; rfy epWtdq;fSk; ,jd; %yk; jkJ epjpapay; eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F trjpaspf;fpd;wJ. kWgf;fj;jpy;> nrhj;Jf;fs; kw;Wk; itg;Gf;fspd; nghUj;jg;ghlw;w jd;ikapd; gFjpf; fhuzj;jhy; tq;fpfs; Kiwikapd; jd;ikapy; ghjpg;Gs;shff;$ba epiyikia cUthf;fyhk;. epjpapay; Kiwikapy; ek;gpf;ifapidg; NgZtjpy; tq;fpapd; Mw;wy; gq;fspg;Gr; nra;tjhy; ,t; Mw;wy; Kf;fpakhdjhFk;. VjhtJ jtW Vw;gLkplj;J kw;iwa vy;yh epjpapay; kw;Wk; epjpapay; my;yhj epWtdq;fs; eltbf;iffspy; vjpHfhyj;jpy; xU jhf;fj;jpid Vw;gLj;jf;$ba cs;shh;e;j tsj;ij nfhz;bUf;ff; $Lk;.

nrhj;Jj; jsj;jpd; epajpfspYk; toq;fg;gl;l gzpfspd; mstpYk; chpkk; ngw;w th;j;jf tq;fpfs; tq;fpj; njhopy; JiwapDs; epjpapay; epWtdj;jpd;; kpf Kf;fpa jdp mikg;ghfTs;sd. 2012 nrj;njk;gH ,Wjpapy;> epjpapay; Kiwikapy; chpkk; ngw;w tHj;jf tq;fpfs; Kf;fpa ,lj;ijg; ngw;wpUe;jd. mit nkhj;j epjpapay; Kiwikapd; nrhj;Jf;fspy; 48 rjtPj gq;fpidf; nfhz;bUe;jNjhL> tq;fpj; njhopy; Jiwapd; nrhj;Jf;fspy; 86 rjtPjj;ijAk; nfhz;bUe;jd. vdNt> epjpapay; Kiwikapd; eyd; ngUksTf;F epjpapay; epWtdq;fspd; Fwpg;ghf> chpkk; ngw;w tHj;jf tq;fpfspd; Mw;wypNyNa jq;fpAs;sJ.

2012 nrj;njk;gH ,Wjpapy; tq;fpj; njhopy; Jiwapy; 24 chpkk; ngw;w th;j;jf tq;fpfSk;> 9 chpkk; ngw;w rpwg;gpay;Gila tq;fpfSk; ,Ue;jd. ,e;j ehl;by; ngUk; vz;zpf;ifahd chpkk; ngw;w tq;fpfs; ,Ue;j NghJk;> epjpapay; Kiwikapd; cWjpg;ghlhdJ ,uz;L mur tq;fpfs; kw;Wk; ehd;F nghpa cs;ehl;L jdpahH th;j;jf tq;fpfis cs;slf;Ffpd;w MW nghpa c. t. tq;fpfspd; nraw;ghl;bYk;> epjpapay; typikapYNk ngUksTf;Fj; jq;fpAs;sJ. ,t; MW tq;fpfSk; Kiwapay; rhHe;j Kf;fpaj;Jtk; kpf;f tq;fpfs; vd nghJthf miof;fg;gLfpd;wd. ,it chpkk; ngw;w tHj;jf tq;fpj; Jiwapd; nrhj;Jf;fspy; 77 rjtPjj;jpidAk;> tq;fpj; Jiwapd; nrhj;Jf;fspy; 66 rjtPjj;jpidAk;> gpujpgypf;fpd;wd.

chpkk; ngw;w rpwg;gpay;G tha;e;j tq;fpfs; KO epjpapay; Kiwikapd; nrhj;Jf;fspYk;> tq;fpj; Jiwapd; nrhj;Jf;fspYk; KiwNa 8 rjtPjj;jpidAk;> 14 rjtPjj;jpidAk;; nfhz;Ls;sd. msT kw;Wk; epjpapay; Kiwik kPjhd mtw;wpd; jhf;fk; Mfpa ,U epajpfspYk; chpkk; ngw;w th;j;jf tq;fpfSld; xg;gpLifapy; chpkk; ngw;w rpwg;gpy;G tha;e;j tq;fpfs; Jiwapd; Kiwahd Kf;fpaj;Jtk; rhh;G hPjpapy; Fiwthf tpsq;FfpwJ. Vnddpy;> mit nfhLg;gdT Rw;Nwhl;lj;jpy; ,ilepiy epWtdq;fspd; gq;fpid Mw;Wtjpy;iy.

fPNo jug;gl;Ls;s ml;ltiz chpkk; ngw;w th;j;jf tq;fpfs; kw;Wk; chpkk; ngw;w rpwg;gpay;G tha;e;j tq;fpfs; njhlh;ghd Ez;ghf Kd;kjpAila rpy Fwpfhl;bfs; kPjhd juTfisj; jUfpd;wJ. kj;jpa tq;fp epjpapay; Kiwikapid xOq;FgLj;Jgtuhf ,Ue;J epjpapay; Kiwik cWjpg;ghl;il kjpg;gpLtjw;fhd mjd; fl;likg;gpd; xU gFjpahf tq;fpj; njhopy; Kiwik gw;wpa Ez;ghf> Kd;kjpAila juTfisj; njhFf;fpwJ.

.

tq;fpj; njhopy; Jiwapd; Ez;ghf Kd;kjpAila Fwpfhl;bfs;

 

2005

2006

2007

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

chpkk; ngw;w tq;fpfs;

01. %yjd NghJik tpfpjk; - mLf;F 1
%yjd tpfpjk; (%)

12.3

11.3 11.9 11.1 12.9 13.0 13.4 12.3
02. %yjd NghJik tpfpjk; - nkhj;j
%yjd tpfpjk; (%)

13.2

12.7 13.6 13.8 15.4 15.2 15.5 14.5
03. nkhj;jf; fld;fs;> Kw;gzq;fspd; tPjkhf nray;glhj Kw;gzq;fs; (%)

6.9

5.5 5.0 6.0 8.2 5.1 3.5 3.4
04. %yjd epjpaq;fsp;d; % khf Njwpa nray;glhj nkhj;j Kw;gzq;fs;

16.5

13.0 11.9 16.7 25.3 14.6 9.9 10.9
05. Jiw thhpahd nfhLfld; gfpHT

          Ntshz;ik kw;Wk; kPd;gpb

-

5.5 5.2 5.4 11.6 13.9 13.3 13.1

          jahhpg;G

-

14.4 16.9 17.9 15.7 13.6 12.6 11.2

          Rw;Wyh

-

2.0 2.2 2.6 2.9 2.3 2.3 2.5

          Nghf;Ftuj;J

-

1.9 2.3 2.2 1.7 1.7 2.2 1.7

          fl;blthf;fk;

-

13.9 16.4 14.6 14.6 14.1 11.8 11.4

          tHj;jfHfs;

-

13.9 13.6 13.8 14.9 15.2 12.0 16.3

          Gjpa nghUshjhuk;

-

3.2 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.0 1.2

          epjpapay; kw;Wk; tpahghug;gzp

-

4.5 5.5 4.9 3.3 4.5 5.4 4.6

          cl;fl;likg;G

-

1.1 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 5.3

          Vida gzpfs;

-

5.8 4.9 6.0 5.2 6.9 7.8 3.2

          Vida thbf;ifahsHfs;

-

33.7 30.9 30.6 27.7 25.8 30.7 29.5
06. nrhj;J kPjhd tUkhdk; %

1.7

1.9 1.9 2.0 1.7 2.5 2.4 2.6
07. gq;F kPjhd tUkhdk; %

17.7

16.2 15.0 14.8 11.0 20.8 20.1 21.9
08. jput tpfpjk; %

24.5

23.9 24.8 25.7 33.0 29.4 26.2 26.2
09. %yjd epjpaq;fspd; % khf Njwpa ntspg;gilahd epiy

0.01

0.7 1.2 2.2 (1.5) (1.1) (1.6) 0.17
chpkk; ngw;w rpwg;gpay;G tha;e;j tq;fpfs;
01. %yjd NghJik tpfpjk; - mLf;F 1
%yjd tpfpjk; %

25.6

20.8 21.2 21.0 23.6 25.0 21.1 21.1
02. %yjd NghJik tpfpjk; - nkhj;j
%yjd tpfpjk; %

19.9

19.8 20.6 25.6 22.0 24.4 20.0 19.5
03. nkhj;j fld;fs; Kw;gzq;fsp;d; % khf nray;glhj Kw;gzq;fs;)

9.5

6.7 6.7 8.9 10.4 7.9 6.8 6.5
04. %yjd epjpaq;fspd; % khf nraw;glhj Kw;gzq;fs;

21.1

21.9 23.0 26.7 30.4 17.8 19.0 20.8
05. nrhj;Jf;fs; kPjhd tUkhdk; (%)

2.4

2.0 1.7 1.4 2.4 3.8 2.5 1.8
06. gq;F kPjhd tUkhdk; (%)

13.9

11.7 10.0 6.9 15.3 27.1 17.4 12.9
07. jput tpfpjk; (%)

69.4

63.6 61.0 61.9 71.1 74.3 65.4 61.5
%yk;:,yq;if kj;jpa tq;fp



epjpapay; Kiwikapd; $Wfs;
epjpapay; KiwikahdJ cr;r epjpapay; epWtdkhd kj;jpa tq;fp. Vida xOq;F Kiwg;gLj;jy; mjpfhu rigfs;> epjp epWtdq;fs;> re;ijfs;> fUtpfs;> xU nfhLg;gdT kw;Wk; jPHg;gdT Kiwik> rl;lhPjpahd fl;likg;G kw;Wk; xOq;Ftpjpfs; vd;gdtw;iw cs;slf;FfpwJ. kpifahf cs;s $Wfspy; ,Ue;J fld; ngw;W> gw;whf;Fiwahf cs;s $WfSf;F fld; toq;Fk; caH epiyahd epjpapay; ,ilepWtdq;fspd; njhopw;ghl;bid epjpapay; Kiwik Nkw;nfhs;fpd;wJ. rl;lhPjpahd fl;likg;Gk;> xOq;FgLj;JNthUk;> epjpapay; Kiwikapidf; fz;fhzpg;gjw;Fk; xOq;FgLj;Jtjw;Fk; NjitahdjhFk;. nfhLg;gdT> kw;Wk; jPh;;;g;gdT vd;gJ epjpapay; Kiwikapyhd nfhLf;fy; thq;fy;fs; jPh;T nra;J jPh;g;gdT nra;ag;gLfpd;wnjhU KiwikahFk;.
xOq;FgLj;Jk; mjpfhu rigfs; >>
epjpapay; epWtdq;fs; >>
epjpapay; re;ijfs; >>
epjpapay; fUtpfs; >>
nfhLg;gdT kw;Wk; jPHg;gdT cl;fl;likg;G >>

xOq;FgLj;jy; mjpfhurigfs; ,yq;if kj;jpa tq;fp.
1949 58 Mk; ,yf;f ehzar; rl;l tpjp> 1938 ,d; 30 Mk; ,yf;f tq;fpj; njhopy; rl;lk; kw;Wk; 1953 ,d; 24 Mk; ,yf;f nryhtzpf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lr; rl;lk; Mfpatw;wpdhy; tq;fpj; njhopy; epWtdq;fspd; xOq;F tpjpfs; kw;Wk; Nkw;ghHit vd;gd epHtfpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.
 
   
2011 Mk; Mz;bd; 42 Mk; ,yf;f epjpj; njhopy; epajpfSf;fpzq;f epjpf; fk;gdpfspd; xOq;F tpjpfs; kw;Wk; Nkw;ghHit vd;gd nraw;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.
 
   
epjpf; Fj;jif epWtdq;fspd; xOq;FgLj;jYk; Nkw;ghHitAk; 2000 Mk; Mz;bd; 56 Mk; ,yf;f epjp Fj;jif toq;Fk; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; epHtfpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.
 
   
1923 8 Mk; ,yf;f cs;ehl;L jpiwNrhp cz;bay;fs; fl;lisr; rl;lk; kw;Wk; 1937 ,d; 7 Mk; ,yf;f gjpT nra;ag;gl;l gq;Ffs; kw;Wk; gpizfs; fl;lisr; rl;lk; Mfpatw;wpdhy; murhq;fj;jpd; gpizfspd; Kjdpiy tzpfHfSila xOq;F tpjpfs;> Nkw;ghHit vd;gd nraw;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.
 
 
   

Nkw;ghHit nra;ag;gLk; epWtdq;fNs epjpapay; cWjpg;ghl;Lf;fhd Kiw rhh;e;j Kf;fpa epWtdq;fshFk;. vt;thwhapDk;> tpiuthf khw;wkile;J tUk; R+o;epiyf;F Vw;g jq;fis khw;wpf; nfhs;shtpl;lhy;> epjpapay; Jiwapyhd Nghl;b> rpy Neuq;fspy;> rpy epjp epWtdq;fis epiyj;jpUf;f Kbahj epiyf;F ,l;Lr; nry;yyhk;. mj;jifa epWtdq;fs;> mit Nkhrkile;Js;s mstpd; mbg;gilapy; xd;wpy; kWrPuikf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; my;yJ fiyf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

gpizaq;fs; ghptHj;jid Mizf;FO
1987 ,d; 36 Mk; ,yf;f ,yq;ifapd; gpizaq;fs;> ghptHj;jid Mizf; FOtpd; (gp. g. M) epajpfspy; gq;F ghpth;j;jidfs;> gq;F jufHfs;> gq;F tzpfHfs; kw;Wk; $W ek;gpf;iff; fk;gdpfs; Mfpadtw;wpw;F> chpkk; toq;FjYk; xOq;FgLj;jYk; gpizaq;fs; ghptHj;jid Mizf; FOtpd; nghWg;ghFk;. el;l cj;juthjpfs;> vy;iyf; fld; toq;FNthH> nfhLfld; juj;ij kjpg;gpLk; KftHfs;> KjyPl;L KfhikahsHfs;> gpizfs; jPHT ,y;yq;fs; Mfpadtw;wpd; gjptpidAk; gp. g. Mizf;FO Nkw;nfhs;fpd;wJ. epjpapay; cWjpg;ghl;L gpur;rpidfis xUq;fpizf;Fk; nghUl;L , gp. g. Mizf;FOtpd; gzpg;ghsH rigapy; kj;jpa tq;fpAk; xU mq;fj;jtuhf ,Ug;gJld; gp;. g. Mizf;FOtpd; rigapy; epjpapay; Kiwik cWjpg;ghl;Lf;F nghWg;ghfTs;s Jiz MSeH kj;jpa tq;fpiag; gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;Jfpd;whH.

,yq;if fhg;GWjpr; rig
,yq;ifapd; fhg;GWjpr;rig 2000 ,d; 43Mk; ,yf;f fhg;GWjpj; ifj;njhopy; xOq;F tpjp rl;lj;jpd; fPo;> fhg;GWjp gj;jpu chpikahsHfspd; eyidg; ghJfhf;Fk; nghUl;L> fhg;GWjpf; ifj;njhopy;> fhg;GWjpf; fk;gdpfs; mjd; KftHfs;> fhg;GWjpj; jufHfs; MfpNahiu ,yq;ifapd; fhg;GWjpr; rig xOq;FgLj;jp Nkw;ghHit nra;fpd;wJ. kj;jpa tq;fp ,yq;ifapd; fhg;GWjpr; rigapy; xU mq;fj;jtuhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ. epjpapay; Kiwikapd; cWjpg;ghl;Lf;F nghWg;ghfTs;s Jiz MSeH ,jidg; gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;Jfpd;whH.

epjpapay; epWtdq;fs;
kj;jpa tq;fpapdhy; xOq;FgLj;jg;gLk; epWtdq;fs;
chpkk; ngw;w tHj;jf tq;fpfs; >>
chpkk; ngw;w rpwg;gpay;G tha;e;j tq;fpfs; >>
chpkk; ngw;w epjpf; fk;gdpfs; >>
gjpT nra;ag;gl;l epjpf; Fj;jif epWtdq;fs; >>
mjpfhukspf;fg;gl;l Kjd;epiy tzpfHfs; >>

Ez;ghf epjp epWtdq;fis xOq;FgLj;Jk; rl;lk; xd;W jw;NghJ jahhpf;fg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. Ez;ghf epjp epWtdq;fis kj;jpa tq;fp Nkw;ghHit nra;a Ntz;Lnkd tpje;Jiuf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

,yq;if kj;jpa tq;fpapdhy; xOq;FgLj;jg;glhj epWtdq;fs;.
,it> gpizaq;fs;> kw;Wk; ghpth;j;jid Mizf; FOthy; Nkw;ghh;it nra;ag;gLk; gq;Fj; juFj; njhopy;> tzpfj; njhopy; fk;gdpfs; $W ek;gpf;if fk;gdpfs; kw;Wk; KjyPl;L Kfhikj;Jtf; fk;gdpfisAk;> ,yq;iff; fhg;GWjpr;rigahy; xOq;F Kiwg;gLj;jg;gLk; fhg;GWjpf; fk;gdpfs; kw;Wk; fhg;GWjpj; jufh;fisAk; Jzpfu %yjdf; fk;gdpfs;> Xa;t+jpak; kw;Wk; Nrk epjpaq;fs; kw;Wk; Ez;ghf epjpf; fk;gdpfisAk; cs;slf;Ffpd;wd.


epjpapay; re;ijfs;
epjpapay; re;ijfs; vd;gJ nfhLfld; kw;Wk; %yjdk; vd;gdtw;wpw;fhd re;ijahFk;. ,jid gzr;re;ij kw;Wk; %yjdr;re;ij vdg;gphpf;fyhk;. FWq;fhy tl;bapidf; nfhz;Ls;s nrhj;Jf;fSf;fhd re;ij> gzr;re;ijahFk;. ,tw;wpd; KjpHr;rpf; fhyk; xU tUlj;jpw;Fk; FiwthdjhFk;. ,it> jpiwNrhp cz;bay;fs;> th;j;jfg; gj;jpuk; kw;Wk; itg;Gr; rhd;wpjo;fs; vd;gdthFk;. nghUshjhuj;jpy; jputj;jd;ik Kfhikj;Jtj;Jf;F trjpaspg;gNj gzr; re;ijapd; gpujhd gzpahFk;. gzr;re;ijapy; ntspaPl;bidr; Nkw;nfhs;NthH muR> tq;fpfs; kw;Wk; jdpahH fk;gdpfs; vd;gdthFk;. mNjNtis> ,jd; gpujhd KjyPl;lhsHfshf tq;fpfs;> fhg;GWjpf; fk;gdpfs; Xa;T+jpak; kw;Wk; Nrk epjpaq;fs; tpsq;Ffpd;wd. jpiwNrhp Kwpfs;> jdpahh; gLfld; gpizaq;fs; (KwpfSk; njhFjpf; fld;fSk;) rhjhuz gq;Ffs; Nghd;w xU tUlj;Jf;F Nkw;gl;l KjpHr;rpidf; nfhz;l nrhj;Jf;fspd; tzpfj;jpw;fhd re;ijNa %yjdr;re;ijahFk;. %yjdr; re;ijapd; gpujhd Nehf;fk; ePz;lfhy epjpfisg; ngWtjw;F trjp nra;tjhFk;. mur tq;fpfs;;> jdpahH fk;gdpfNs %yjdr; re;ijapy; gpujhd toq;Fduhth;. ,NjNtis ,q;F gpujhd KjyPl;lhsHfs; Xa;T+jpak; kw;Wk; Nrkepjpaq;fs;> ;fhg;GWjpf; fk;gdpfs; vd;gdthFk;.

fUtpfs; mbg;gilapy; gLfld; re;ij> gq;Fr; re;ij vd epjpapay; re;ijapidg; ghFgLj;jyhk;. gLfld; re;ij epiyahd tUkhdg; gpizaq;fs; re;ij vdTk; miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ. mur gpizaq;fs; re;ij (jpiwNrhp cz;bay;fs;> Kwpfs;)> jdpahH gLfld; gpizaq;fs; re;ij (th;j;jfg; gj;jpuk;> jdpahH Kwpfs; kw;Wk; njhFjpf; fld;fs;) vd;gdNt ,jd; gphpTfshFk;. Kjyhe;ju> ,uz;lhe;jur; re;ijfs; vd ,it ,uz;Lf;Fkpilapy; NtnwhU NtWghLk; cz;L. Kjd; epiyr; re;ij> Gjpa gq;Ffs;> gLfld; gpizfs; vd;gdtw;wpd; toq;fy;fSf;fhdjhFk.; ,NjNtis> ,uz;lhe;jur; re;ij> jw;NghJs;s gpizfs; tzpfk; nra;Ak; re;ijahFk;.

kj;jpa tq;fp> jdJ ehzaf; nfhs;ifapid Nkw;nfhs;tjd; %yk; epjpapay; re;ijapd; gy;NtW gphpTfspYk;> NtWghlhd mstpy; nry;thf;ifr; nrYj;Jfpd;wJ.tq;fpfSf;fpilapyhd miog;Gg;gzr; re;ij vd miof;fg;gLk; gzr; re;ijapd; xU gphptpYk; epiyahd tUkhdg; gpizr; re;ij mjhtJ murhq;fg; gpizr; re;ijapd; xU gphptpYk; kj;jpa tq;fpapd; nfhs;if tl;b tPjq;fs; ngUksT jhf;fj;jpid Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wd. gzr; re;ijAld; neUf;fkhd njhlHgpidf; nfhz;Ls;s tq;fpfSf;F ,ilapyhd ntspr; nryhtzpr; re;ijapYk;> kj;jpa tq;fp jiyaplyhk;.


epjpapay; fUtpfs;

itg;Gfs;

epjpapay; epWtdk; xd;wpy; thbf;ifahshpd; fzf;fpy; tutpy; itf;fg;gl;Ls;s gzj;jpd; nkhj;jj; njhifNa itg;GfshFk;. %d;W tifahd itg;Gf;fs; cs;sd. Nfs;tp itg;Gf;fs;> Nrkpg;G itg;Gf;fs; kw;Wk; epiyahd my;yJ fhy itg;Gfs; vd;gdNt mitahFk;. Nfs;tp itg;Gfs; nfhLf;fy; thq;fy; kw;Wk; ghJfhg;G kw;Wk; epjp Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf gpujhdkhfg; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. epjpfs; Njitg;gl;l NghJ kPs vLj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;. Nfs;tp itg;Gfs; tl;bapidr; rk;ghjpg;gjpy;iy. Mdhy; Nfs;tp itg;ghdJ chpikahsHfSf;F gy gzpfis toq;Ffpd;wJ. mitahtd: fhNrhiy trjpfs;> epiyapaw; fl;lisfs;> jd;dpaf;f $w;Wg;nghwp ml;ilfs; kw;Wk; vLg;gdTfs;> nfhLg;gdTfs; vd;gdtw;Wf;F trjp nra;Ak; nryT ml;ilfs;. Nrkpg;G itg;Gfs; tl;biar; rk;ghjpf;fpd;wd. tl;bahdJ> ehshe;j> thuhe;j> khjhe;j kw;Wk; tUlhe;j mbg;gilapy; fzf;fplg;glyhk;. Nrkpg;G fzf;fpy; ,Ue;J epjpfis vg;nghOJk; kPsg;ngwyhk;. vt;thwhapDk; xU khjj;jpy; ehd;F jlitf;F Nky; epjpia kPsg; ngw;wpUe;jhy; mk;khjj;jpw;fhd tl;b nrYj;jg;gl khl;lhJ. Nrkpg;G itg;G chpikahsHfSf;F epjpapay; epWtdq;fs; Nrkpg;G Gj;jfj;jpid my;yJ eltbf;ifapd; tpguq;fsJ $w;Wf;fis toq;Ffpd;wJ. ,j;NjhL jd;dpaf;f $w;Wg;nghwp ml;iliaAk; nryT ml;ilapidAk; toq;fp gy gzpfis toq;Ffpd;wJ. epiyahd my;yJ fhy itg;Gfs; epjpapay; epWtdq;fspy; xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;Jf;F my;yJ jtizf;F itg;gpyplg;gl;l epjpfshFk;. epiyahd fhy itg;Gfs;> Nrkpg;G itg;Gfistpl $Ljyhd tl;bapidr; rk;ghjpf;fpd;wd. epiyahd> fhy itg;Gfs; FWq;fhy> eLj;ju my;yJ ePz;l fhyj;Jf;fhf ,Uf;fyhk;. Kd; mwptpj;jypd;gbNa KjpHr;rpf;F Ke;jpa jpfjpapy; epjpfis kPsg; ngwKbAk;. ,jw;fhf rpW jz;lk; tpjpf;fg;glyhk;. xU epiyahd / fhy itg;gpd; chpikahsH epjp epWtdq;fspy; itg;gpid xU gpizahf itj;J epjpfspidf; fldhfg; ngWk; trjp cz;L

fld;fs;
fld; vd;gJ> fld; toq;Fgthpdhy; toikahf epjp epWtdnkhd;wpdhy; fld;gLeUf;F mspf;fg;gLk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l njhifahd gzkhFk;;. ,g;gzj;jpid xd;wpy; jtiz Kiwapy; my;yJ xNu jlitapy; ,zq;fg;gl;l jpfjpapy; ,zq;fg;gl;l tl;b tPjj;Jld; kPsr;nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;w epge;jidf;FhpajhFk;. mNef re;jh;g;gq;fspy; epjpapay; epWtdq;fs; VNjh xU tifahd gpizapidf; flDf;fhff; NfhUfpd;wd.

jpiwNrhp cz;bay;fSk; KwpfSk;
jpiwNrhp cz;bay;fs; mur gpizaq;fshFk;. ,J xU tUlk; tiuahd KjpHr;rpf; fhyj;ijf; nfhz;ljhFk;. cs;ehl;L jpiwNrhp cz;bay;fs; fl;lisr; rl;l tpjpfspd; Vw;ghLfspd; fPo;> ,yq;if murpd; rhHghf> kj;jpa tq;fpapd; nghJg;gLfld; jpizf;fsj;jpdhy; jpiwNrhp cz;bay;fs; ntspaplg;gLfpd;wd. jpiwNrhp cz;bay;fs; 91 ehl;fs;> 182 ehl;fs; kw;Wk; 364 ehl;fs; KjpHr;rpfspy; ntspaplg;gLfpd;wd. jpiwNrhp cz;bay;fs; $g;gdpy;yhj gpizfshFk;. ,J KjpHr;rpapd; NghJ nrYj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. nfhs;tdT tpiyf;Fk;;> Kfg;Gg; ngWkjpf;Fk; ,ilNa cs;s NtWghL> chpikahsUf;fhd tl;b tUkhdkhFk;. jpiwNrhp cz;bay;fs; jputj;jd;ikahdit vdf; fUjg;gLfpd;wJ. Vnddpy; mtw;iw ,uz;lhe;jur; re;ijapy; ,yFthf tpw;W fhrhf khw;wpf; nfhs;syhk;. jpiwNrhp Kwpfs; kj;jpa> ePz;l fhy mur gpizaq;fshFk;. ,it> 2tUlq;fspypUe;J 20 tUlq;fs; tiuapyhd Kjph;r;rpf; fhyq;fspy; toq;fg;gLfpd;wd. gjpTnra;ag;gl;l gq;Ffs; kw;Wk; gpizfs; fl;lisr; rl;lj;jpd; Vw;ghLfspd;; fPo; ,yq;if muR rhHghf ,yq;if kj;jpa tq;fpapd;> nghJg;gLfld; jpizf;fsj;jpdhy; jpiwNrhp Kwpfs; ntspaplg;gLfpd;wd. jpiwNrhp Kwpfs; tl;bAld; $ba gpizaq;fshFk;. tl;b tUlj;Jf;F ,Ujuk; nrYj;jg;gLfpwJ. jpiwNrhp cz;bay;fSk;> KwpfSk; murhq;fj;jhy; cj;juthjk; mspf;fg;gl;Ls;sNjhL > Kwpe;JNghff; $ba Mgj;J ,y;yhjjpdhy;> KjyPLfspy; kpfTk; ghJfhg;ghdJkhFk;. jpiwNrhp cz;bay;fSk;> KwpfSk; tzpfk; nra;af;$ba gpizaq;fshFk;. ,it Kjd;epiy tzpfHfSf;F Vyj;jpy; tpw;fg;gLfpwJ. mtHfs; gpd;dH mjid nghJkf;fSf;F re;ijg;;gLj;JfpwhHfs;. jpiwNrhp cz;bay;fspdJk;> KwpfspdJk; tUtha; re;ijapdhy; jPHkhdpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ,uz;bw;Fkhd re;ij kpfr; RWRWg;ghdNjhL> jputj;jd;ik tha;e;jJkhFk;. 2004 ,y; ,Ue;J jpiwNrhp cz;bay;fSk; KwpfSk; gj;jpuq;fsw;w Kiwapy; ntspaplg;gLfpd;wd. ,yq;if kj;jpa tq;fpapd; "yq;fh nrf;FahH" Kiwikapy; eltbf;iffs; ,yj;jpudpay; Kiw %yk; gjpT nra;ag;gLfpd;wd.

kPs; nfhs;tdT cld;gbf;iffs;;
kPs; nfhs;tdT cld;gbf;iffs;> gpizaq;fs; (tof;fkhf mur gpizaq;fs;) fhRf;F tpw;fg;gLtJ njhlHghdJ. ,it xU Fwpg;gpl;l tpiyapy; mjid my;yJ mjidnahj;j gpizaq;fis Fwpg;gpl;l vjpHfhyj; jpfjpapy;> xU epiyahd tpiyapy; kPs; nfhs;tdT nra;ag;gLk; vd;w cWjpg;ghl;Lld; tpw;fg;gLtjhFk;. tpw;gid tpiyf;Fk;> kPs; nfhs;tdT tpiyf;Fk; ,ilNa cs;s NtWghL> tl;b tUkhdkhFk;. gpizaq;fspid thq;Fgthpd; Nehf;fpypUe;J ghHf;Fk;NghJ cld;gbf;if Neh;khw;W kPs; nfhs;tdT vd miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ. gpizaq;fis cj;juthjkhff; nfhz;L fld; toq;FtJ Nghd;wNj xU kPs; nfhs;tdT cld; gbf;ifahFk;. ngUk;ghyhd kPs; nfhs;tdTfs; kpff; FWfpa fhyg; gzr; re;ijf; fUtpfshFk;.

tHj;jfg; gj;jpuk;
tq;fpfs; kw;Wk; Vida epjpapay; ,ilepWtdq;fs; Clhf> jdpahH Jiwf; fk;gdpfs; jkJ nrhe;jj; Njitf;fhf epjpfisg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;F FWfpa fhy cj;juthjq;fsw;w (gpizfsw;w) gLfld; gpizfis ntspapLfpd;wd. ,it th;j;jfg; gj;;jpuq;fshFk;. th;j;jfg; gj;jpuq;fs; nghJthf nfhLflid nrYj;jf;$ba ed;kjpg;Gs;s (caHjuhjuKs;s) epWtdq;fspdhy;> nghpa ,dq;fspy; ntspaplg;gLfpd;wd. ,jw;F nfhLg;gdTf;fhd tq;fpapd; Nkyjpf cj;juthjKk; cs;sJ. th;j;jfg; gj;jpuq;fs; rpy tl;bapidf; nfhz;Ls;sNghJk;> tof;fkhf ,J xU fopTlNdNa tpw;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

fk;gdp KwpfSk; njhFjpf; fld;fSk;
fk;gdp Kwpfs;> jdpahH Jiwf; fk;gdpfspd; eLj;ju my;yJ ePz;lfhyg; gpizaq;fshFk;. ,tw;wpw;F toq;Fgth; tl;b nrYj;Jtjw;Fk; KjpHr;rpapd; NghJ %yjdj; njhifia kPsr;nrYj;Jtjw;Fk; rl;lg;gb flg;ghLilatuhth;. fk;gdp Kwpfs;> Fwpg;gpl;l nrhj;J gpd;dzpapidf; nfhz;buhjNghJ njhFjpf; fld;fs; vd miof;fg;gLk; .

njhFjpf;fld;fs;> gpizfsw;w kj;jpa my;yJ ePz;lfhy tl;bapidr; rk;ghjpf;Fk; KwpfshFk;. ,it jdpahH Jiw fk;gdpfs;> tq;fpfs; kw;Wk; Vida epjp epWtdq;fshy; toq;fg;gLfpd;wd. ,tw;wpw;F toq;fg;gLgthpd; nghJthd ed;kjpg;G gpd;dzp kl;LNk cs;sJ. njhFjpf; fld;fs; tof;fkhf nghpa> ed;F gyg;gLj;jg;gl;l epWtdq;fshNyNa toq;fg;gLfpd;wd. njhFjpf; fld;fis itj;jpUg;NghH fld; toq;fpNahH vdf; fUjg;gLtH. toq;Fk; fk;gdp xU Ntis fk;gdpia %btpLk; epiy Vw;gLk;NghJ> gq;FhpikahsHfSf;F nfhLg;gdit Nkw;nfhs;s Kd;dNu mjidg; ngWtjw;F mtHfs; chpikAilatHfs;.


nrhj;J gpd;dzp cs;s gpizaq;fs;
nrhj;J gpd;ddpAs;s gpizaq;fs; toq;Fk;; epWtdk;> fld;fs;> jtizf; nfhLfld;> nfhLfld; ml;il my;yJ ngwf;$ba Vidatw;iw> xU ek;gpf;if nghWg;ghsUf;F my;yJ xU rpwg;G Nehf;fj;Jf;fhd epWtdj;jpw;F tpw;fpd;wJ. ,itfs; nrhj;Jg; gpd;dzpAs;s gpizaq;fis nghJkf;fSf;F tpw;fpwJ. nrhj;J gpd;dzp cs;s gpizfs; tl;bapidr; rk;ghjpf;Fk; fUtpfshf ,Ug;gJld; ,it mbf;fb cj;juthjq;fs;> fhg;GWjp vd;gdtw;wpd; gad;ghl;bD}lhf tphpTgLj;jg;gLfpwJ.

epjpapay; Fj;jiffs;.
epjpapay; Fj;jiffs; vd;gJ> %yjdk;; my;yJ ePbj;J ,Uf;ff;$ba cgfuzq;fspd; nfhs;tdit rl;lhPjpahd chpikahsH (Fj;jif toq;FgtH) nfhLg;gdTf;fhf Fj;jifapid vLg;gtUf;F cgfuzj;ij fldhff; nfhLf;fpwhH. ,J %yjdj; njhifapidAk;> tl;br; nrytpidAk; cs;slf;Ffpd;wJ. Fj;jifapidg; ngWgtH> nrhj;jpd; gad;ghl;bypUe;J vy;yh ed;ikfisAk; ngWtNjhL chpikAld; NrHe;Js;s Ngzy;> fhg;GWjp kw;Wk; thpfs; Nghd;w nryTfisAk;; ,lHNeHTfisAk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;fpd;whH. fldpd; %yjdj; njhifAk;> tl;bf; nfhLg;gdTfSk; G+uzkhfr; nrYj;jg;gl;l gpd;dH cgfuzj;jpd; rl;lhPjpahd chpik Fj;jif vLj;jtUf;F toq;fg;gLfpwJ.

gq;Ffs;
fk;gdpapd; chpikapd; xU gFjpapid gpujpepjpj;Jtg; gLj;Jk; gpizfNs gq;FfshFk;. ,it fk;gdpapd; nrhj;Jf;fs; kw;Wk; tUtha;fspy; chpikapidf; NfhuKbAk;. gq;FlikahsHfSf;F gq;fpyhgk; nrYj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. ,J fk;gdpapd; ,yhgj;jpd; rjtPjkhFk;.

epjpapay; ngWjpfs;;
epjpapay; ngWjp vd;gJ> NtnwhU tpNrl epjpapay; fUtp> Fwpfhl;b my;yJ gz;lj;Jld; ,izf;fg;gl;l xU epjpapay; fUtpahFk;. ,J> ,tw;wpD}lhf tpNrl epjpapay; ,lh;Neh;Tfs; Clhf tl;btPj ,lh;Neh;T> ntspehl;Lr; nryhtzp ,lh;Neh;T> gq;F kw;Wk; gz;l tpiy ,lh;Neh;T Nghd;w mtw;wpd; nrhe;j chpikAld; epjpapaw; re;ijfspy; th;j;jfk; nra;ag;glyhk;. th;j;jff; nfhLf;fy; thq;fy;fs; kw;Wk; epjpapaw; fUtpfs; kPjhd ,og;Gf;fs; kw;Wk; re;ijfSf;Fk; Cfq;fSf;fpilapyhd NtWghL vd;gtw;wpw;F vjpuhf ,lh;Neh;T Kfhikj;Jtk; kw;Wk; ghJfhg;Gf;fhf gad;gLj;jf; $ba nrhj;J my;yJ Rl;nlz; epjpapaw; ngWjpfs; Nghd;w tplaq;fspd; cs;spUf;Fk; tpiyapypUe;J epjpapay; ngWjpapd; ngWkjp fpilf;fpwJ. ,U NtWgl;l epjpapay; ngWjpfs; cs;sd. Kd;Nehf;fpa kw;Wk; njhlHGila fUtpfs;> kw;iwaJ tpUg;gj;NjHTf; fUtp MFk;. ngUksTf;F nghJthd Kd;Nehf;fpa fUtpfshf Kd;Nehf;fpa xg;ge;jq;fs;> vjpHfhy xg;ge;jq;fs;> Kd;Nehf;fpa tPj cld;ghLfs; kw;Wk; tl;b tPj Nguk;. epjpapay; ngWjp fUk gPlj;jpNyNa th;j;jfk; vd;gd tpsq;Ffpd;wd. ,jidg; nghWj;jtiuapy; mit thbf;ifahsh;fSf;Nfw;g tbtikf;fg;gl;Ls;sJld; ,tw;iw epjpapay; epWtdq;fspy; nfhs;tdT nra;ayhk;. my;yJ mit ey;y cw;gj;jpfs; xOq;FgLj;jg;gl;l ghptHj;jid epiyaq;fspy; th;j;jfk; nra;ag;gLk;. ,yq;ifapy;> epjpapay; ngWjp gue;jstpy; gad;gLj;jg;glhtpl;lhYk;> Kd;Nehf;fpa xg;ge;jq;fs;> Kd;Nehf;fpa tPj cld;gbf;iffs; kw;Wk; tl;b tPj Nguk; vd;gd tsHr;rpngwj; njhlq;fpAs;sd.

nfhLg;gdT kw;Wk; jPHg;gdT cl;fl;likg;G.
epjpapay; Kiwikapd; kpf Kf;fpakhd njhopw;ghLfspy; xd;W ahnjdpy; nfhLg;gdfspdJk;> gpizaq;fspd; nfhLf;fy; thq;fy;fspdJk; ghJfhg;gpidAk; nray;jpwidAk; cWjp nra;tjhFk;. nghpa ngWkjp kw;Wk; rpwpa ngWkjpf; nfhLg;gdTfs; ,uz;bdJk; nray;ghl;bw;F ntt;NtW Kiwikfs; toq;FtjidNa epjpapay; cl;fl;likg;G Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ. jdpg;gl;ltHfSf;F ,ilNaAk;> epWtdq;fSf;F ,ilNaAk; epjpapay; flg;ghLfis jPHg;gdT nra;tjidAk; epjpapay; epWtdq;fspd; fzf;Ffspy; cs;s gzj;jpid khw;WtjidAk; nfhLg;gdT kw;Wk; jPHg;gdT Kiwik ,ayr; nra;fpwJ .

,yq;ifapy; gpujhd nfhLg;gdT jPHT kw;Wk; jPHg;gdT Kiwfs; gpd;tUkhW.
yq;fh fpspah; ypkpl;nll;lhy; njhopw;gLj;jg;gLk; fhNrhiy gpujpikg;gLj;jy; kw;Wk; Rw;Nwhl;lf;Fiwg;G kw;Wk; tq;fpfSf;fpilNaahd fhNrhiyj; jPh;j;jy; Kiwik
 
   
yq;fh fpspah; ypl;nll;lhy; njhopw;gLj;jg;gLk; ,yq;ifapd; tq;fpfSf;F ,ilNaahd nfhLg;gdT Kiwik
 
   
yq;fh nrw;wps; ,yq;if kj;jpa tq;fpahy; njhopw;gLj;jg;gLk; mNjNeu nkhj;jj;; jPh;g;gdT Kiwik kw;Wk; gj;jpuq;fsw;w gpizaq;fs; jPh;g;gdT Kiwfis cs;slf;fpAs;sJ.
 
 

Njrpa nfhLg;gdT Kiwikapd; etPdkag;gLj;jy; >>
 
Njly;
> mbf;fb Nfl;fg;gLk; Nfs;tpfs;
> ,izg;Gf;fs;
> tpsf;fg;glk;
> vq;fSld; njhlh;G nfhs;f
> kWg;G
epjpapay; Kiwik cWjpg;ghL
epjpapay; Kiwikiag; gw;wp
 
epjpapay; Kiwikapd; cWjpg;ghL.
  epjpapay; Kiwikapd; mikg;G
  epjpapay; Kiwikapd; mq;fq;fs;.
xOq;F tpjpAk; Nkw;ghHitAk;
 
tq;fpfis xOq;FgLj;jYk; Nkw;ghHit nra;jYk;
  epjpf; fk;gdpfis xOq;FgLj;jYk; Nkw;ghHit nra;jYk;
  Fj;jif epjp toq;Fk; mikg;Gf;fspid xOq;FgLj;jYk; Nkw;ghHit nra;jYk;
  Kjdpiy tzpfHfis xOq;FgLj;jYk; Nkw;ghHit nra;jYk;
fz;fhzpj;jYk; kpff; ftdkhd Nkw;ghHitAk;
 
gzk; kw;Wk; ntspehl;Lr;;nryhtzp re;ijfspd; cWjpg;ghl;bidg; NgZjy;
  nfhLg;gdT kw;Wk; jPHg;gdT Kiwikapidf; fz;fhzpj;jy;.
  ghhpa epjpapay; FOkq;fis ftdkhff; Nkw;ghHit nra;jy;
  ,Wjpf; fld; <Nthd;
epjpapay; Kiwik cWjpg;ghl;Lf; FO
   
 
 
©,yq;if kj;jpa tq;fp midj;J chpikfisAk; nfhz;Ls;sJ. gf;fk; = yq;fh nuypnfhk; ntg; gzpfspdhy; tbikf;fg;gl;lJ.